References Kidney Test

Eknoyan, Garabed, Norbert Lameire, K. Eckardt, B. Kasiske, D. Wheeler, A. Levin, P. E. Stevens, R. W. Bilous, E. J. Lamb, and J. Coresh. “KDIGO 2012 Clinical Practice Guideline for the Evaluation and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease.” Kidney Int 3, no. 1 (2013): 5–14.

Inker LA, Perrone RD.  Assessment of kidney function. UpToDate. Published 2021. Accessed January 19, 2022.

Feng, Jia-fu, Ling Qiu, Lin Zhang, Xue-mei Li, Yu-wei Yang, Ping Zeng, Xiu-zhi Guo, et al. “Multicenter Study of Creatinine- and/or Cystatin C-Based Equations for Estimation of Glomerular Filtration Rates in Chinese Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.” PloS One 8, no. 3 (2013): e57240.

Stevens, Lesley A., Josef Coresh, Christopher H. Schmid, Harold I. Feldman, Marc Froissart, John Kusek, Jerome Rossert, et al. “Estimating GFR Using Serum Cystatin C Alone and in Combination with Serum Creatinine: A Pooled Analysis of 3,418 Individuals with CKD.” American Journal of Kidney Diseases: The Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation 51, no. 3 (March 2008): 395–406. 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Chronic Kidney Disease Fact Sheet. In: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, ed. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,; 2017. Accessed: June 20, 2022. 

NHS England. Overview -Chronic kidney disease. 2019. Accessed June 20, 2022.


National Kidney Foundation. Cystatin C.

. Accessed June 20, 2022.

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